Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon with other elements like magananese, silicon ,and phosphours.There are different process for the manufacture of steel.

                   1 . OPEN HEARTH PROCESS

         In this process pig iron is converted into steel using open hearth furnace.The process may be acidic or basic on the phosphorus content in the pig iron.

                  2. BESSEMER PROCESS

        In this process a furnace known as  BESSEMER converter is used to convert pig iron into steel.The quantity  steel obtained from this process is not so fine as that from open hearth.

                3. BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS

      In this process the furnace used is some what like a bessmer converter of large size.Oxygen is blown through a water cooled lance.High quality steel is obtained at a faster rate.This process is also known as L.D process.I is named after two plants in Australia at LINZ and DONEWITZ.


     High quality special grade steel is produced in electric furnace and high freequency induction furnaces are in use.