What is Nipah infection?

Nipah infection ( NiV )  is a recently developing zoonosis that causes severe disease in both animals and humans. NiV was first identified during an outbreak of disease that took place in Kampung Sungai Nipah, Malaysia in 1998.Nipah virus infection gets its name from the village in Malaysia Kampung Baru Sungai Nipah where the person from whom the virus was first isolated succumbed to the disease.In Bangladesh in 2004, humans became infected with NiV as a result of consuming date palm sap that had been contaminated by infected fruit bats.

How does Nipah spread or get transmitted? 

                The normal host of the Nipah virus  are fruit bats of the Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus.The disease spreads through fruit bats or ‘flying foxes,’ of the genus Pteropus, who are natural reservoir hosts of the Nipah and Hendra viruses. The virus is present in bat urine and potentially, bat faeces, saliva, and birthing fluids. Now a day’s Human-to-human transmission has also been documented, including in a hospital setting in India. NiV virus  can  causing disease in pigs and other domestic animals.

Photo credits to Malayala maorama

Photo credits to Malayala maorama

Symptoms of the Nipah infection

                   Typically, the human infection presents as an encephalitic syndrome marked by fever, headache, drowsiness, disorientation, mental confusion, coma, and potentially death. Death rate among infected people is 75%.

Prevention of the Nipah infection 

                      Now a days  there is no vaccine available for the  Nipah infection, The primary treatment for human cases is intensive supportive care. As we discussed above Fruits bats being the primary cause of infection, So avoid use of fruits  contaminated by bats both human beigs and animals. Physical barriers can be provide in the water well for avoiding the shelters for Fruit bat.As with other virus infections, those who are close to the sick must wear masks, hands, and clean hands and other things. It is best to admit suspects in a particular ward, suspected of infecting the virus.